For 75 years Harvard researchers followed the same 600+ people to determine what contributes to a long, healthy, and happy life. The Harvard Happiness Study is the longest study on health and happiness ever conducted and continues to this day. The Harvard Happiness study has two components: The Grant study, and The Gluek Study. The Grant Study follows 268 physically- and mentally-healthy Harvard college sophomores from the classes of 1939-1944. The second component The Glueck Study, includes 456 disadvantaged non-delinquent inner-city youths who grew up in Boston neighbourhoods between 1940 and 1945. All Subjects were male and of American nationality.
What insights did the 75 year old study reveal? Below are the seven key factors identified.
1. Keep Learning
The Gluek study shows mortality rates of the inner-city participants at ages 68 to 70 whilst the Harvard participants (Grant) lived longer – 78 to 80. The exceptions? Glueck participants who graduated from college (only about 6%) were just as healthy as the Grant participants, even in old age. The studies suggest a lack of education could shorten someone’s life by as much as 10 years.
Multiple studies have confirmed the protective health benefits of education. And if you’re beyond your college years, continued intellectual stimulation at any age can prevent your mind and body from deteriorating.
2. Don’t Abuse Alcohol
Not surprisingly, alcohol abuse is the No. 1 contributor to disease and early death among all participants in both study groups.
The Harvard Happiness study lead investigator, Dr. George Vaillant, even concluded that, “alcohol is a cause, rather than a result, of life’s problems.” Just a few of these problems being depression and neurosis, which tended to follow alcohol abuse, rather than precede it.
3. Don’t Smoke
Aside from alcohol abuse, smoking cigarettes was the next greatest contributor to disease and early death for all participants.
Interestingly, America’s No. 1 tobacco company Phillip Morris was a major funder for the Grant Study. During those years, the participant questionnaires contained questions like, “If you never smoked, why didn’t you?” Despite the subliminal undertones, the study’s major funder couldn’t ignore the consequences and fatalities of smoking. Needless to say, Philip Morris isn’t a sponsor anymore…
4. Exercise and Maintain a Healthy Weight
In his book about the Harvard Happiness Study, entitled Triumphs of Experience, Dr. Vaillant challenges one of our most commonly held conceptions: exercise causes good health. He questions, “Might it not be the other way around? Healthy people exercise, but not necessarily that exercise makes people healthy.”
The study shows regular exercise in college predicted late-life mental health better than it did physical health.
Dr Valliant concludes that exercise and healthy weight are two of the major factors for long life and happiness. While the researchers may not know exactly why exercise and maintaining a healthy weight helps people live longer, the longitudinal study simply shows that it does! Just do it.
5. Relationships Rule.
When asked what he learned from over 40 years leading the Harvard Happiness Study, Dr. Valiiant says “The only things that really matter in life are your relationships to other people.” When asked again for a key takeaway from the study, Vaillant simply said: “Happiness is love. Full stop.”
In a recent TED Talk, Dr. Waldinger concluded, “Good relationships keep us happier and healthier”. After 75 years and $25 million spent, the result of the findings is that good relationships are important.
Not only did participants of both studies who reported having close relationships tend to be happier and healthier, but they also lived longer. Positive relationships are found to have a protective benefit, both physically and mentally, while bad relationships led to earlier physical and mental decline. Positive relationships can actually fend off perceived physical pain, whilst nightmarish relationships have a way of magnifying the pain.
While studying 75 years of records on over 600 people, Dr. Waldinger concludes, “people who fared the best are those who invest in relationships with family, friends and the community. On the other hand, investing in your career and striving for more success has little relevance in the longevity stakes.
6. The Key to Financial Success
According to the longitudinal study, the key to financial success above a certain level does not depend on intelligence, but rather on the warmth of relationships. Those who scored highest on the “warm relationships” measurements in the questionnaire earned an average of $141,000 a year more. Conversely there is no significant difference in maximum income earned by men with IQs in the 110-115 range and men with IQs higher than 150.